DBA VI Commands

Add the text at the begining and end of the line.

posted Oct 10, 2011, 1:29 PM by Sachchida Ojha

  :%s/^/@/g  - Add @ at the begining of the line.
  :%s/$/.sql/g - Add .sql at the end of the line.

Find and remove files with one find command on fly

posted Jul 26, 2011, 12:48 PM by Sachchida Ojha

Linux or UNIX - Find and remove file syntax

 find /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms -name *.trm -mtime +7 -exec rm -f {} \;
 find /u01/app/oracle/diag/asm -name *.trm -mtime +7 -exec rm -f {} \;
 find /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms -name *.trc -mtime +7 -exec rm -f {} \;
 find /u01/app/oracle/diag/asm -name *.trc -mtime +7 -exec rm -f {} \;
 find /u01/app/oracle/admin -name *.aud -mtime +5 -exec rm -f {} \;

To remove multiple files such as *.jpg or *.sh with one command find, use

find . -name "FILE-TO-FIND"-exec rm -rf {} \;


find . -type f -name "FILE-TO-FIND" -exec rm -f {} \;

The only difference between above two syntax is that first command can remove directories as well where second command only removes files.

More Examples of find command

(a) Find all files having .bak (*.bak) extension in current directory and remove them:
$ find . -type f -name "*.bak" -exec rm -f {} \;

(b) Find all core files and remove them:
# find / -name core -exec rm -f {} \;

(c) Find all *.bak files in current directory and removes them with confirmation from user:
$ find . -type f -name "*.bak" -exec rm -i {} \;


rm: remove regular empty file `./data0002.bak'? y
rm: remove regular empty file `./d234234234fsdf.bak'? y
rm: remove regular empty file `./backup-20-10-2005.bak'? n

Finding files and printing their full name

You wish to find out all *.c (all c source code) files located under /home directory, enter:
$ find /home -name "*.c"

You would like to find httpd.conf file location:
$ find / -name httpd.conf

Finding all files owned by a user

Find out all files owned by user vivek:
# find / -user vivek

Find out all *.sh owned by user vivek:
# find / -user vivek -name "*.sh"

Finding files according to date and time

Files not accessed in a time period – It is useful to find out files that have or have not been accessed within a specified number of days. Following command prints all files not accessed in the last 7 days:
# find /home -atime +7

  • -atime +7: All files that were last accessed more than 7 days ago
  • -atime 7: All files that were last accessed exactly 7 days ago
  • -atime -7: All files that were last accessed less than7 days ago

Finding files modified within a specified time – Display list of all files in /home directory that were not last modified less than then days ago.
# find /home -mtime -7

Finding newer (more recently) modified files

Use -newer option to find out if file was modified more recently than given file.
# find /etc/apache-perl -newer /etc/apache-perl/httpd.conf

Finding the most recent version of file

It is common practice before modifying the file is copied to somewhere in system. For example whenever I modify web server httpd.conf file I first make backup. Now I don't remember whether I had modified the /backup.conf/httpd.conf or /etc/apache-perl/httpd.conf. You can use the find command as follows (tip you can also use ls -l command):
find / -name httpd.conf -newer /etc/apache-perl/httpd.conf

Locate command

The locate command is often the simplest and quickest way to find the locations of files and directories on Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.

For example, the following command uses the star wildcard to display all files on the system that have the .c filename extension:
# locate "*.c"

VIM command reference

posted Jul 26, 2011, 12:43 PM by Sachchida Ojha

/joe/e                      : cursor set to End of match
3/joe/e+1                   : find 3rd joe cursor set to End of match plus 1 *C*
/joe/s-2                    : cursor set to Start of match minus 2
/joe/+3                     : find joe move cursor 3 lines down
/^joe.*fred.*bill/          : find joe AND fred AND Bill (Joe at start of line)
/^[A-J]/                    : search for lines beginning with one or more A-J
/begin\_.*end               : search over possible multiple lines
/fred\_s*joe/               : any whitespace including newline *C*
/fred\|joe                  : Search for FRED OR JOE
/.*fred\&.*joe              : Search for FRED AND JOE in any ORDER!
/\<fred\>/                  : search for fred but not alfred or frederick *C*
/\<\d\d\d\d\>               : Search for exactly 4 digit numbers
/\D\d\d\d\d\D               : Search for exactly 4 digit numbers
/\<\d\{4}\>                 : same thing
/\([^0-9]\|^\)%.*%          : Search for absence of a digit or beginning of line
" finding empty lines
/^\n\{3}                    : find 3 empty lines
/^str.*\nstr                : find 2 successive lines starting with str
/\(^str.*\n\)\{2}           : find 2 successive lines starting with str
" using rexexp memory in a search
" Repeating the Regexp (rather than what the Regexp finds)
" visual searching
:vmap // y/<C-R>"<CR>       : search for visually highlighted text
:vmap <silent> //    y/<C-R>=escape(@", '\\/.*$^~[]')<CR><CR> : with spec chars
" \zs and \ze regex delimiters :h /\zs
/<\zs[^>]*\ze>              : search for tag contents, ignoring chevrons
" zero-width :h /\@=
/<\@<=[^>]*>\@=             : search for tag contents, ignoring chevrons
/<\@<=\_[^>]*>\@=           : search for tags across possible multiple lines
" searching over multiple lines \_ means including newline
/<!--\_p\{-}-->                   : search for multiple line comments
/fred\_s*joe/                     : any whitespace including newline *C*
/bugs\(\_.\)*bunny                : bugs followed by bunny anywhere in file
:h \_                             : help
" search for declaration of subroutine/function under cursor
:nmap gx yiw/^\(sub\<bar>function\)\s\+<C-R>"<CR>
" multiple file search
:bufdo /searchstr/                : use :rewind to recommence search
" multiple file search better but cheating
:bufdo %s/searchstr/&/gic   : say n and then a to stop
" How to search for a URL without backslashing
?http://www.vim.org/        : (first) search BACKWARDS!!! clever huh!
" Specify what you are NOT searching for (vowels)
/\c\v([^aeiou]&\a){4}       : search for 4 consecutive consonants
/\%>20l\%<30lgoat           : Search for goat between lines 20 and 30 *N*
/^.\{-}home.\{-}\zshome/e   : match only the 2nd occurence in a line of "home" *N*
:%s/home.\{-}\zshome/alone  : Substitute only the occurrence of home in any line *N*
" find str but not on lines containing tongue
:%s/fred/joe/igc            : general substitute command
:%s//joe/igc                : Substitute what you last searched for *N*
:%s/~/sue/igc               : Substitute your last replacement string *N*
:%s/\r//g                   : Delete DOS returns ^M
" Is your Text File jumbled onto one line? use following
:%s/\r/\r/g                 : Turn DOS returns ^M into real returns
:%s=  *$==                  : delete end of line blanks
:%s= \+$==                  : Same thing
:%s#\s*\r\?$##              : Clean both trailing spaces AND DOS returns
:%s#\s*\r*$##               : same thing
" deleting empty lines
:%s/^\n\{3}//               : delete blocks of 3 empty lines
:%s/^\n\+/\r/               : compressing empty lines
:%s#<[^>]\+>##g             : delete html tags, leave text (non-greedy)
:%s#<\_.\{-1,}>##g          : delete html tags possibly multi-line (non-greedy)
:%s#.*\(\d\+hours\).*#\1#   : Delete all but memorised string (\1) *N*
%s#><\([^/]\)#>\r<\1#g      : split jumbled up XML file into one tag per line *N*
" VIM Power Substitute
:'a,'bg/fred/s/dick/joe/igc : VERY USEFUL
" duplicating columns
:%s= [^ ]\+$=&&=            : duplicate end column
:%s= \f\+$=&&=              : same thing
:%s= \S\+$=&&               : usually the same
" memory
%s#.*\(tbl_\w\+\).*#\1#     : produce a list of all strings tbl_*   *N*
:s/\(.*\):\(.*\)/\2 : \1/   : reverse fields separated by :
:%s/^\(.*\)\n\1$/\1/        : delete duplicate lines
:%s/^\(.*\)\(\n\1\)\+$/\1/  : delete multiple duplicate lines *N*
" non-greedy matching \{-}
:%s/^.\{-}pdf/new.pdf/      : delete to 1st occurence of pdf only (non-greedy)
" use of optional atom \?
:%s#\<[zy]\?tbl_[a-z_]\+\>#\L&#gc : lowercase with optional leading characters
" over possibly many lines
:%s/<!--\_.\{-}-->//        : delete possibly multi-line comments
:help /\{-}                 : help non-greedy
" substitute using a register
:s/fred/<c-r>a/g            : sub "fred" with contents of register "a"
:s/fred/\=@a/g              : better alternative as register not displayed
" multiple commands on one line
:%s/\f\+\.gif\>/\r&\r/g | v/\.gif$/d | %s/gif/jpg/
:%s/a/but/gie|:update|:next : then use @: to repeat
" ORing
:%s/goat\|cow/sheep/gc      : ORing (must break pipe)
:'a,'bs#\[\|\]##g           : remove [] from lines between markers a and b *N*
:%s/\v(.*\n){5}/&\r         : insert a blank line every 5 lines *N*
" Calling a VIM function
:s/__date__/\=strftime("%c")/ : insert datestring
:inoremap \zd <C-R>=strftime("%d%b%y")<CR>    : insert date eg 31Jan11 *N*
" Working with Columns sub any str1 in col3
" Swapping first & last column (4 columns)
" format a mysql query 
:%s#\<from\>\|\<where\>\|\<left join\>\|\<\inner join\>#\r&#g
" filter all form elements into paste register
:redir @*|sil exec 'g#<\(input\|select\|textarea\|/\=form\)\>#p'|redir END
:nmap ,z :redir @*<Bar>sil exec 'g@<\(input\<Bar>select\<Bar>textarea\<Bar>/\=form\)\>@p'<Bar>redir END<CR>
" substitute string in column 30 *N*
" decrement numbers by 3
" increment numbers by 6 on certain lines only
" better
:h /\zs
" increment only numbers gg\d\d  by 6 (another way)
:h zero-width
" rename a string with an incrementing number
:let i=10 | 'a,'bg/Abc/s/yy/\=i/ |let i=i+1 # convert yy to 10,11,12 etc
" as above but more precise
:let i=10 | 'a,'bg/Abc/s/xx\zsyy\ze/\=i/ |let i=i+1 # convert xxyy to xx11,xx12,xx13
" find replacement text, put in memory, then use \zs to simplify substitute
" Pull word under cursor into LHS of a substitute
:nmap <leader>z :%s#\<<c-r>=expand("<cword>")<cr>\>#
" Pull Visually Highlighted text into LHS of a substitute
:vmap <leader>z :<C-U>%s/\<<c-r>*\>/
" substitute singular or plural
:'a,'bs/bucket\(s\)*/bowl\1/gic   *N*
" all following performing similar task, substitute within substitution
" Multiple single character substitution in a portion of line only
:%s,\(all/.*\)\@<=/,_,g     : replace all / with _ AFTER "all/"
" Same thing
:s#all/\zs.*#\=substitute(submatch(0), '/', '_', 'g')#
" Substitute by splitting line, then re-joining
" Substitute inside substitute
:%s/.*/\='cp '.submatch(0).' all/'.substitute(submatch(0),'/','_','g')/
" global command display 
:g/gladiolli/#              : display with line numbers (YOU WANT THIS!)
:g/fred.*joe.*dick/         : display all lines fred,joe & dick
:g/\<fred\>/                : display all lines fred but not freddy
:g/^\s*$/d                  : delete all blank lines
:g!/^dd/d                   : delete lines not containing string
:v/^dd/d                    : delete lines not containing string
:g/joe/,/fred/d             : not line based (very powerfull)
:g/fred/,/joe/j             : Join Lines *N*
:g/-------/.-10,.d          : Delete string & 10 previous lines
:g/{/ ,/}/- s/\n\+/\r/g     : Delete empty lines but only between {...}
:v/\S/d                     : Delete empty lines (and blank lines ie whitespace)
:v/./,/./-j                 : compress empty lines
:g/^$/,/./-j                : compress empty lines
:g/<input\|<form/p          : ORing
:g/^/put_                   : double space file (pu = put)
:g/^/m0                     : Reverse file (m = move)
:g/^/m$                     : No effect! *N*
:'a,'bg/^/m'b               : Reverse a section a to b
:g/^/t.                     : duplicate every line
:g/fred/t$                  : copy(transfer) lines matching fred to EOF
:g/stage/t'a                : copy (transfer) lines matching stage to marker a (cannot use .) *C*
:g/^Chapter/t.|s/./-/g      : Automatically underline selecting headings *N*
:g/\(^I[^^I]*\)\{80}/d      : delete all lines containing at least 80 tabs
" perform a substitute on every other line
:g/^/ if line('.')%2|s/^/zz / 
" match all lines containing "somestr" between markers a & b
" copy after line containing "otherstr"
:'a,'bg/somestr/co/otherstr/ : co(py) or mo(ve)
" as above but also do a substitution
:%norm jdd                  : delete every other line
" incrementing numbers (type <c-a> as 5 characters)
:.,$g/^\d/exe "norm! \<c-a>": increment numbers
:'a,'bg/\d\+/norm! ^A       : increment numbers
" storing glob results (note must use APPEND) you need to empty reg a first with qaq. 
"save results to a register/paste buffer
:g/fred/y A                 : append all lines fred to register a
:g/fred/y A | :let @*=@a    : put into paste buffer
:let @a=''|g/Barratt/y A |:let @*=@a
" filter lines to a file (file must already exist)
:'a,'bg/^Error/ . w >> errors.txt
" duplicate every line in a file wrap a print '' around each duplicate
:g/./yank|put|-1s/'/"/g|s/.*/Print '&'/
" replace string with contents of a file, -d deletes the "mark"
:g/^MARK$/r tmp.txt | -d
" display prettily
:g/<pattern>/z#.5           : display with context
:g/<pattern>/z#.5|echo "=========="  : display beautifully
" Combining g// with normal mode commands
:g/|/norm 2f|r*                      : replace 2nd | with a star
"send output of previous global command to a new window
:nmap <F3>  :redir @a<CR>:g//<CR>:redir END<CR>:new<CR>:put! a<CR><CR>
" Global combined with substitute (power editing)
:'a,'bg/fred/s/joe/susan/gic :  can use memory to extend matching
:/fred/,/joe/s/fred/joe/gic :  non-line based (ultra)
:/biz/,/any/g/article/s/wheel/bucket/gic:  non-line based *N*
" Find fred before beginning search for joe
" create a new file for each line of file eg 1.txt,2.txt,3,txt etc
:g/^/exe ".w ".line(".").".txt"
" chain an external command
:.g/^/ exe ".!sed 's/N/X/'" | s/I/Q/    *N*
" Operate until string found *N*
d/fred/                                :delete until fred
y/fred/                                :yank until fred
c/fred/e                               :change until fred end
" Summary of editing repeats *N*
.      last edit (magic dot)
:&     last substitute
:%&    last substitute every line
:%&gic last substitute every line confirm
g%     normal mode repeat last substitute
g&     last substitute on all lines
@@     last recording
@:     last command-mode command
:!!    last :! command
:~     last substitute
:help repeating
" Summary of repeated searches
;      last f, t, F or T
,      last f, t, F or T in opposite direction
n      last / or ? search
N      last / or ? search in opposite direction
" Absolutely essential
* # g* g#           : find word under cursor (<cword>) (forwards/backwards)
%                   : match brackets {}[]()
.                   : repeat last modification 
@:                  : repeat last : command (then @@)
matchit.vim         : % now matches tags <tr><td><script> <?php etc
<C-N><C-P>          : word completion in insert mode
<C-X><C-L>          : Line complete SUPER USEFUL
/<C-R><C-W>         : Pull <cword> onto search/command line
/<C-R><C-A>         : Pull <CWORD> onto search/command line
:set ignorecase     : you nearly always want this
:set smartcase      : overrides ignorecase if uppercase used in search string (cool)
:syntax on          : colour syntax in Perl,HTML,PHP etc
:set syntax=perl    : force syntax (usually taken from file extension)
:h regexp<C-D>      : type control-D and get a list all help topics containing
                      regexp (plus use TAB to Step thru list)
:nmap ,s :source $VIM/_vimrc
:nmap ,v :e $VIM/_vimrc
:e $MYVIMRC         : edits your _vimrc whereever it might be  *N*
" How to have a variant in your .vimrc for different PCs *N*
ab mypc vista
ab mypc dell25
" splitting windows
:vsplit other.php       # vertically split current file with other.php *N*
"VISUAL MODE (easy to add other HTML Tags)
:vmap sb "zdi<b><C-R>z</b><ESC>  : wrap <b></b> around VISUALLY selected Text
:vmap st "zdi<?= <C-R>z ?><ESC>  : wrap <?=   ?> around VISUALLY selected Text
"vim 7 tabs
vim -p fred.php joe.php             : open files in tabs
:tabe fred.php                      : open fred.php in a new tab
:tab ball                           : tab open files
" vim 7 forcing use of tabs from .vimrc
:nnoremap gf <C-W>gf
:cab      e  tabe
:tab sball                           : retab all files in buffer (repair) *N*
" Exploring
:e .                            : file explorer
:Exp(lore)                      : file explorer note capital Ex
:Sex(plore)                     : file explorer in split window
:browse e                       : windows style browser
:ls                             : list of buffers
:cd ..                          : move to parent directory
:args                           : list of files
:args *.php                     : open list of files (you need this!)
:lcd %:p:h                      : change to directory of current file
:autocmd BufEnter * lcd %:p:h   : change to directory of current file automatically (put in _vimrc)
" Changing Case
guu                             : lowercase line
gUU                             : uppercase line
Vu                              : lowercase line
VU                              : uppercase line
g~~                             : flip case line
vEU                             : Upper Case Word
vE~                             : Flip Case Word
ggguG                           : lowercase entire file
" Titlise Visually Selected Text (map for .vimrc)
vmap ,c :s/\<\(.\)\(\k*\)\>/\u\1\L\2/g<CR>
" Title Case A Line Or Selection (better)
vnoremap <F6> :s/\%V\<\(\w\)\(\w*\)\>/\u\1\L\2/ge<cr> *N*
" titlise a line
nmap ,t :s/.*/\L&/<bar>:s/\<./\u&/g<cr>  *N*
" Uppercase first letter of sentences
gf                              : open file name under cursor (SUPER)
:nnoremap gF :view <cfile><cr>  : open file under cursor, create if necessary
ga                              : display hex,ascii value of char under cursor
ggVGg?                          : rot13 whole file
ggg?G                           : rot13 whole file (quicker for large file)
:8 | normal VGg?                : rot13 from line 8
:normal 10GVGg?                 : rot13 from line 8
<C-A>,<C-X>                     : increment,decrement number under cursor
                                  win32 users must remap CNTRL-A
<C-R>=5*5                       : insert 25 into text (mini-calculator)
" Make all other tips superfluous
:h 42            : also http://www.google.com/search?q=42
:h holy-grail
" disguise text (watch out) *N*
ggVGg?                          : rot13 whole file (toggles)
:set rl!                        : reverse lines right to left (toggles)
:g/^/m0                         : reverse lines top to bottom (toggles)
" Markers & moving about
'.               : jump to last modification line (SUPER)
`.               : jump to exact spot in last modification line
g;               : cycle thru recent changes (oldest first)
g,               : reverse direction 
:h changelist    : help for above
<C-O>            : retrace your movements in file (starting from most recent)
<C-I>            : retrace your movements in file (reverse direction)
:ju(mps)         : list of your movements
:help jump-motions
:history         : list of all your commands
:his c           : commandline history
:his s           : search history
q/               : Search history Window (puts you in full edit mode) (exit CTRL-C)
q:               : commandline history Window (puts you in full edit mode) (exit CTRL-C)
:<C-F>           : history Window (exit CTRL-C)
" Abbreviations & Maps
" Following 4 maps enable text transfer between VIM sessions
:map   <f7>   :'a,'bw! c:/aaa/x       : save text to file x
:map   <f8>   :r c:/aaa/x             : retrieve text 
:map   <f11>  :.w! c:/aaa/xr<CR>      : store current line
:map   <f12>  :r c:/aaa/xr<CR>        : retrieve current line
:ab php          : list of abbreviations beginning php
:map ,           : list of maps beginning ,
" allow use of F10 for mapping (win32)
set wak=no       : :h winaltkeys
" For use in Maps
<CR>             : carriage Return for maps
<ESC>            : Escape
<LEADER>         : normally \
<BAR>            : | pipe
<BACKSPACE>      : backspace
<SILENT>         : No hanging shell window
#display RGB colour under the cursor eg #445588
:nmap <leader>c :hi Normal guibg=#<c-r>=expand("<cword>")<cr><cr>
map <f2> /price only\\|versus/ :in a map need to backslash the \
# type table,,, to get <table></table>       ### Cool ###
imap ,,, <esc>bdwa<<esc>pa><cr></<esc>pa><esc>kA
" Simple PHP debugging display all variables yanked into register a
iab phpdb exit("<hr>Debug <C-R>a  ");
" Using a register as a map (preload registers in .vimrc)
:let @m=":'a,'bs/"
:let @s=":%!sort -u"
" Useful tricks
"ayy@a           : execute "Vim command" in a text file
yy@"             : same thing using unnamed register
u@.              : execute command JUST typed in
"ddw             : store what you delete in register d *N*
"ccaw            : store what you change in register c *N*
" Get output from other commands (requires external programs)
:r!ls -R         : reads in output of ls
:put=glob('**')  : same as above                 *N*
:r !grep "^ebay" file.txt  : grepping in content   *N*
:20,25 !rot13    : rot13 lines 20 to 25   *N*
!!date           : same thing (but replaces/filters current line)
" Sorting with external sort
:%!sort -u       : use an external program to filter content
:'a,'b!sort -u   : use an external program to filter content
!1} sort -u      : sorts paragraph (note normal mode!!)
:g/^$/;/^$/-1!sort : Sort each block (note the crucial ;)
" Sorting with internal sort
:sort /.*\%2v/   : sort all lines on second column *N*
" number lines  (linux or cygwin only)
:new | r!nl #                  *N*
" Multiple Files Management (Essential)
:bn              : goto next buffer
:bp              : goto previous buffer
:wn              : save file and move to next (super)
:wp              : save file and move to previous
:bd              : remove file from buffer list (super)
:bun             : Buffer unload (remove window but not from list)
:badd file.c     : file from buffer list
:b3              : go to buffer 3 *C*
:b main          : go to buffer with main in name eg main.c (ultra)
:sav php.html    : Save current file as php.html and "move" to php.html
:sav! %<.bak     : Save Current file to alternative extension (old way)
:sav! %:r.cfm    : Save Current file to alternative extension
:sav %:s/fred/joe/           : do a substitute on file name
:sav %:s/fred/joe/:r.bak2    : do a substitute on file name & ext.
:!mv % %:r.bak   : rename current file (DOS use Rename or DEL)
:help filename-modifiers
:e!              : return to unmodified file
:w c:/aaa/%      : save file elsewhere
:e #             : edit alternative file (also cntrl-^)
:rew             : return to beginning of edited files list (:args)
:brew            : buffer rewind
:sp fred.txt     : open fred.txt into a split
:sball,:sb       : Split all buffers (super)
:scrollbind      : in each split window
:map   <F5> :ls<CR>:e # : Pressing F5 lists all buffer, just type number
:set hidden      : Allows to change buffer w/o saving current buffer
" Quick jumping between splits
map <C-J> <C-W>j<C-W>_
map <C-K> <C-W>k<C-W>_
" Recording (BEST TIP of ALL)
qq  # record to q
your complex series of commands
q   # end recording
@q to execute
@@ to Repeat
5@@ to Repeat 5 times
qQ@qq                             : Make an existing recording q recursive *N*
" editing a register/recording
"qp                               :display contents of register q (normal mode)
<ctrl-R>q                         :display contents of register q (insert mode)
" you can now see recording contents, edit as required
"qdd                              :put changed contacts back into q
@q                                :execute recording/register q
" Operating a Recording on a Visual BLOCK
1) define recording/register
qq:s/ to/ from/g^Mq
2) Define Visual BLOCK
3) hit : and the following appears
4)Complete as follows
:'<,'>norm @q
"combining a recording with a map (to end up in command mode)
"here we operate on a file with a recording, then move to the next file *N*
:nnoremap ] @q:update<bar>bd
" Visual is the newest and usually the most intuitive editing mode
" Visual basics
v                               : enter visual mode
V                               : visual mode whole line
<C-V>                           : enter VISUAL BLOCK mode
gv                              : reselect last visual area (ultra)
o                               : navigate visual area
"*y or "+y                      : yank visual area into paste buffer  *C*
V%                              : visualise what you match
V}J                             : Join Visual block (great)
V}gJ                            : Join Visual block w/o adding spaces
`[v`]                           : Highlight last insert
:%s/\%Vold/new/g                : Do a substitute on last visual area *N*
" Delete first 2 characters of 10 successive lines
0<c-v>10j2ld  (use Control Q on win32) *C*
" how to copy a set of columns using VISUAL BLOCK
" visual block (AKA columnwise selection) (NOT BY ordinary v command)
<C-V> then select "column(s)" with motion commands (win32 <C-Q>)
then c,d,y,r etc
" how to overwrite a visual-block of text with another such block *C*
" move with hjkl etc
Pick the first block: ctrl-v move y
Pick the second block: ctrl-v move P <esc>
" text objects :h text-objects                                     *C*
daW                                   : delete contiguous non whitespace
di<   yi<  ci<                        : Delete/Yank/Change HTML tag contents
da<   ya<  ca<                        : Delete/Yank/Change whole HTML tag
dat   dit                             : Delete HTML tag pair
diB   daB                             : Empty a function {}
das                                   : delete a sentence
" _vimrc essentials
:set incsearch : jumps to search word as you type (annoying but excellent)
:set wildignore=*.o,*.obj,*.bak,*.exe : tab complete now ignores these
:set shiftwidth=3                     : for shift/tabbing
:set vb t_vb=".                       : set silent (no beep)
:set browsedir=buffer                 : Maki GUI File Open use current directory
" launching Win IE
:nmap ,f :update<CR>:silent !start c:\progra~1\intern~1\iexplore.exe file://%:p<CR>
:nmap ,i :update<CR>: !start c:\progra~1\intern~1\iexplore.exe <cWORD><CR>
" FTPing from VIM
cmap ,r  :Nread
cmap ,w  :Nwrite
gvim ftp://www.somedomain.com/index.html # uses netrw.vim
" appending to registers (use CAPITAL)
" yank 5 lines into "a" then add a further 5
[I     : show lines matching word under cursor <cword> (super)
" Conventional Shifting/Indenting
" visual shifting (builtin-repeat)
:vnoremap < <gv
:vnoremap > >gv
" Block shifting (magic)
" also
>% and <%
" Redirection & Paste register *
:redir @*                    : redirect commands to paste buffer
:redir END                   : end redirect
:redir >> out.txt            : redirect to a file
" Working with Paste buffer
"*yy                         : yank curent line to paste
"*p                          : insert from paste buffer
" yank to paste buffer (ex mode)
:'a,'by*                     : Yank range into paste
:%y*                         : Yank whole buffer into paste
:.y*                         : Yank Current line to paster
" filter non-printable characters from the paste buffer
" useful when pasting from some gui application
:nmap <leader>p :let @* = substitute(@*,'[^[:print:]]','','g')<cr>"*p
" Re-Formatting text
gq}                          : Format a paragraph
gqap                         : Format a paragraph
ggVGgq                       : Reformat entire file
Vgq                          : current line
" break lines at 70 chars, if possible after a ;
" Operate command over multiple files
:argdo %s/foo/bar/e          : operate on all files in :args
:bufdo %s/foo/bar/e
:windo %s/foo/bar/e
:argdo exe '%!sort'|w!       : include an external command
:bufdo exe "normal @q" | w   : perform a recording on open files
:silent bufdo !zip proj.zip %:p   : zip all current files
" Command line tricks
gvim -h                    : help
ls | gvim -                : edit a stream!!
cat xx | gvim - -c "v/^\d\d\|^[3-9]/d " : filter a stream
gvim -o file1 file2        : open into a horizontal split *C*
gvim -O file1 file2        : open into a vertical split *N*
" execute one command after opening file
gvim.exe -c "/main" joe.c  : Open joe.c & jump to "main"
" execute multiple command on a single file
vim -c "%s/ABC/DEF/ge | update" file1.c
" execute multiple command on a group of files
vim -c "argdo %s/ABC/DEF/ge | update" *.c
" remove blocks of text from a series of files
vim -c "argdo /begin/+1,/end/-1g/^/d | update" *.c
" Automate editing of a file (Ex commands in convert.vim)
vim -s "convert.vim" file.c
#load VIM without .vimrc and plugins (clean VIM)
gvim -u NONE -U NONE -N
" Access paste buffer contents (put in a script/batch file)
gvim -c 'normal ggdG"*p' c:/aaa/xp
" print paste contents to default printer
gvim -c 's/^/\=@*/|hardcopy!|q!'
" gvim's use of external grep (win32 or *nix)
:!grep somestring *.php     : creates a list of all matching files *C*
" use :cn(ext) :cp(rev) to navigate list
:h grep
" Using vimgrep with copen                              *N*
:vimgrep /keywords/ *.php
" GVIM Difference Function (Brilliant)
gvim -d file1 file2        : vimdiff (compare differences)
dp                         : "put" difference under cursor to other file
do                         : "get" difference under cursor from other file
" complex diff parts of same file *N*
:1,2yank a | 7,8yank b
:tabedit | put a | vnew | put b
:windo diffthis 
" Vim traps
In regular expressions you must backslash + (match 1 or more)
In regular expressions you must backslash | (or)
In regular expressions you must backslash ( (group)
In regular expressions you must backslash { (count)
/fred\+/                   : matches fred/freddy but not free
/\(fred\)\{2,3}/           : note what you have to break
" \v or very magic (usually) reduces backslashing
/codes\(\n\|\s\)*where  : normal regexp
/\vcodes(\n|\s)*where   : very magic
" pulling objects onto command/search line (SUPER)
<C-R><C-W> : pull word under the cursor into a command line or search
<C-R><C-A> : pull WORD under the cursor into a command line or search
<C-R>-                  : pull small register (also insert mode)
<C-R>[0-9a-z]           : pull named registers (also insert mode)
<C-R>%                  : pull file name (also #) (also insert mode)
<C-R>=somevar           : pull contents of a variable (eg :let sray="ray[0-9]")
" List your Registers
:reg             : display contents of all registers
:reg a           : display content of register a
:reg 12a         : display content of registers 1,2 & a *N*
"5p              : retrieve 5th "ring" 
"1p....          : retrieve numeric registers one by one
:let @y='yy@"'   : pre-loading registers (put in .vimrc)
qqq              : empty register "q"
qaq              : empty register "a"
:reg .-/%:*"     : the seven special registers *N*
:reg 0           : what you last yanked, not affected by a delete *N*
"_dd             : Delete to blackhole register "_ , don't affect any register *N*
" manipulating registers
:let @a=@_              : clear register a
:let @a=""              : clear register a
:let @a=@"              : Save unnamed register *N*
:let @*=@a              : copy register a to paste buffer
:let @*=@:              : copy last command to paste buffer
:let @*=@/              : copy last search to paste buffer
:let @*=@%              : copy current filename to paste buffer
" help for help (USE TAB)
:h quickref             : VIM Quick Reference Sheet (ultra)
:h tips                 : Vim's own Tips Help
:h visual<C-D><tab>     : obtain  list of all visual help topics
                        : Then use tab to step thru them
:h ctrl<C-D>            : list help of all control keys
:helpg uganda           : grep HELP Files use :cn, :cp to find next
:helpgrep edit.*director: grep help using regexp
:h :r                   : help for :ex command
:h CTRL-R               : normal mode
:h /\r                  : what's \r in a regexp (matches a <CR>)
:h \\zs                 : double up backslash to find \zs in help
:h i_CTRL-R             : help for say <C-R> in insert mode
:h c_CTRL-R             : help for say <C-R> in command mode
:h v_CTRL-V             : visual mode
:h tutor                : VIM Tutor
<C-[>, <C-T>            : Move back & Forth in HELP History
gvim -h                 : VIM Command Line Help
:cabbrev h tab h        : open help in a tab *N*
" where was an option set
:scriptnames            : list all plugins, _vimrcs loaded (super)
:verbose set history?   : reveals value of history and where set
:function               : list functions
:func SearchCompl       : List particular function
" making your own VIM help
:helptags /vim/vim64/doc  : rebuild all *.txt help files in /doc
:help add-local-help
" running file thru an external program (eg php)
map   <f9>   :w<CR>:!c:/php/php.exe %<CR>
map   <f2>   :w<CR>:!perl -c %<CR>
" capturing output of current script in a separate buffer
:new | r!perl #                   : opens new buffer,read other buffer
:new! x.out | r!perl #            : same with named file
" create a new buffer, paste a register "q" into it, then sort new buffer
:new +put q|%!sort
" Inserting DOS Carriage Returns
:%s/$/\<C-V><C-M>&/g          :  that's what you type
:%s/$/\<C-Q><C-M>&/g          :  for Win32
:%s/$/\^M&/g                  :  what you'll see where ^M is ONE character
" automatically delete trailing Dos-returns,whitespace
autocmd BufRead * silent! %s/[\r \t]\+$//
autocmd BufEnter *.php :%s/[ \t\r]\+$//e
" perform an action on a particular file or file type
autocmd VimEnter c:/intranet/note011.txt normal! ggVGg?
autocmd FileType *.pl exec('set fileformats=unix')
" Retrieving last command line command for copy & pasting into text
" Retrieving last Search Command for copy & pasting into text
" more completions
<C-X><C-F>                        :insert name of a file in current directory
" Substituting a Visual area
" select visual area as usual (:h visual) then type :s/Emacs/Vim/ etc
:'<,'>s/Emacs/Vim/g               : REMEMBER you dont type the '<.'>
gv                                : Re-select the previous visual area (ULTRA)
" inserting line number into file
:g/^/exec "s/^/".strpart(line(".")."    ", 0, 4)
:%s/^/\=strpart(line(".")."     ", 0, 5)
:%s/^/\=line('.'). ' '
#numbering lines VIM way
:set number                       : show line numbers
:map <F12> :set number!<CR>       : Show linenumbers flip-flop
:%s/^/\=strpart(line('.')."        ",0,&ts)
#numbering lines (need Perl on PC) starting from arbitrary number
:'a,'b!perl -pne 'BEGIN{$a=223} substr($_,2,0)=$a++'
#Produce a list of numbers
#Type in number on line say 223 in an empty file
qqmnYP`n^Aq                       : in recording q repeat with @q
" increment existing numbers to end of file (type <c-a> as 5 characters)
:.,$g/^\d/exe "normal! \<c-a>"
" advanced incrementing
" advanced incrementing (really useful)
" put following in _vimrc
let g:I=0
function! INC(increment)
let g:I =g:I + a:increment
return g:I
" eg create list starting from 223 incrementing by 5 between markers a,b
:let I=223
" create a map for INC
cab viminc :let I=223 \| 'a,'bs/$/\=INC(5)/
" generate a list of numbers  23-64
" editing/moving within current insert (Really useful)
<C-U>                             : delete all entered
<C-W>                             : delete last word
<HOME><END>                       : beginning/end of line
<C-LEFTARROW><C-RIGHTARROW>       : jump one word backwards/forwards
<C-X><C-E>,<C-X><C-Y>             : scroll while staying put in insert
#encryption (use with care: DON'T FORGET your KEY)
:X                                : you will be prompted for a key
:h :X
" modeline (make a file readonly etc) must be in first/last 5 lines
// vim:noai:ts=2:sw=4:readonly:
" vim:ft=html:                    : says use HTML Syntax highlighting
:h modeline
" Creating your own GUI Toolbar entry
amenu  Modeline.Insert\ a\ VIM\ modeline <Esc><Esc>ggOvim:ff=unix ts=4 ss=4<CR>vim60:fdm=marker<esc>gg
" A function to save word under cursor to a file
function! SaveWord()
   normal yiw
   exe ':!echo '.@0.' >> word.txt'
map ,p :call SaveWord()
" function to delete duplicate lines
function! Del()
 if getline(".") == getline(line(".") - 1)
   norm dd

:g/^/ call Del()
" Digraphs (non alpha-numerics)
:digraphs                         : display table
:h dig                            : help
i<C-K>e'                          : enters é
i<C-V>233                         : enters é (Unix)
i<C-Q>233                         : enters é (Win32)
ga                                : View hex value of any character
#Deleting non-ascii characters (some invisible)
:%s/[\x00-\x1f\x80-\xff]/ /g      : type this as you see it
:%s/[<C-V>128-<C-V>255]//gi       : where you have to type the Control-V
:%s/[€-ÿ]//gi                     : Should see a black square & a dotted y
:%s/[<C-V>128-<C-V>255<C-V>01-<C-V>31]//gi : All pesky non-asciis
:exec "norm /[\x00-\x1f\x80-\xff]/"        : same thing
#Pull a non-ascii character onto search bar
yl/<C-R>"                         :
/[^a-zA-Z0-9_[:space:][:punct:]]  : search for all non-ascii
" All file completions grouped (for example main_c.c)
:e main_<tab>                     : tab completes
gf                                : open file under cursor  (normal)
main_<C-X><C-F>                   : include NAME of file in text (insert mode)
" Complex Vim
" swap two words
:%s/\<\(on\|off\)\>/\=strpart("offon", 3 * ("off" == submatch(0)), 3)/g
" swap two words
:vnoremap <C-X> <Esc>`.``gvP``P
" Swap word with next word
nmap <silent> gw    "_yiw:s/\(\%#\w\+\)\(\_W\+\)\(\w\+\)/\3\2\1/<cr><c-o><c-l> *N*
" Convert Text File to HTML
:runtime! syntax/2html.vim        : convert txt to html
:h 2html
" VIM has internal grep
:grep some_keyword *.c            : get list of all c-files containing keyword
:cn                               : go to next occurrence
" Force Syntax coloring for a file that has no extension .pl
:set syntax=perl
" Remove syntax coloring (useful for all sorts of reasons)
:set syntax off
" change coloring scheme (any file in ~vim/vim??/colors)
:colorscheme blue
" Force HTML Syntax highlighting by using a modeline
# vim:ft=html:
" Force syntax automatically (for a file with non-standard extension)
au BufRead,BufNewFile */Content.IE?/* setfiletype html
:set noma (non modifiable)        : Prevents modifications
:set ro (Read Only)               : Protect a file from unintentional writes
" Sessions (Open a set of files)
gvim file1.c file2.c lib/lib.h lib/lib2.h : load files for "session"
:mksession                        : Make a Session file (default Session.vim)
:mksession MySession.vim          : Make a Session file named file *C*
gvim -S                           : Reload all files (loads Session.vim) *C*
gvim -S MySession.vim             : Reload all files from named session *C*
#tags (jumping to subroutines/functions)
taglist.vim                       : popular plugin
:Tlist                            : display Tags (list of functions)
<C-]>                             : jump to function under cursor
" columnise a csv file for display only as may crop wide columns
:let width = 20
:let fill=' ' | while strlen(fill) < width | let fill=fill.fill | endwhile
:%s/\([^;]*\);\=/\=strpart(submatch(1).fill, 0, width)/ge
" Highlight a particular csv column (put in .vimrc)
function! CSVH(x)
    execute 'match Keyword /^\([^,]*,\)\{'.a:x.'}\zs[^,]*/'
    execute 'normal ^'.a:x.'f,'
command! -nargs=1 Csv :call CSVH(<args>)
" call with
:Csv 5                             : highlight fifth column
zf1G      : fold everything before this line *N*
" folding : hide sections to allow easier comparisons
zf}                               : fold paragraph using motion
v}zf                              : fold paragraph using visual
zf'a                              : fold to mark
zo                                : open fold
zc                                : re-close fold
" also visualise a section of code then type zf *N*
:help folding
zfG      : fold everything after this line *N*
" displaying "non-asciis"
:set list
:h listchars
" How to paste "normal commands" w/o entering insert mode
:norm qqy$jq
" manipulating file names
:h filename-modifiers             : help
:w %                              : write to current file name
:w %:r.cfm                        : change file extention to .cfm
:!echo %:p                        : full path & file name
:!echo %:p:h                      : full path only
:!echo %:t                        : filename only
:reg %                            : display filename
<C-R>%                            : insert filename (insert mode)
"%p                               : insert filename (normal mode)
/<C-R>%                           : Search for file name in text
" delete without destroying default buffer contents
"_d                               : what you've ALWAYS wanted
"_dw                              : eg delete word (use blackhole)
" pull full path name into paste buffer for attachment to email etc
nnoremap <F2> :let @*=expand("%:p")<cr> :unix
nnoremap <F2> :let @*=substitute(expand("%:p"), "/", "\\", "g")<cr> :win32
" Simple Shell script to rename files w/o leaving vim
$ vim
:r! ls *.c
:%s/\(.*\).c/mv & \1.bla
:w !sh
" count words/lines in a text file
g<C-G>                                 # counts words
:echo line("'b")-line("'a")            # count lines between markers a and b *N*
:'a,'bs/^//n                           # count lines between markers a and b
:'a,'bs/somestring//gn                 # count occurences of a string
" example of setting your own highlighting
:syn match DoubleSpace "  "
:hi def DoubleSpace guibg=#e0e0e0
" reproduce previous line word by word
imap ]  @@@<ESC>hhkyWjl?@@@<CR>P/@@@<CR>3s
nmap ] i@@@<ESC>hhkyWjl?@@@<CR>P/@@@<CR>3s
" Programming keys depending on file type
:autocmd bufenter *.tex map <F1> :!latex %<CR>
:autocmd bufenter *.tex map <F2> :!xdvi -hush %<.dvi&<CR>
" reading Ms-Word documents, requires antiword
:autocmd BufReadPre *.doc set ro
:autocmd BufReadPre *.doc set hlsearch!
:autocmd BufReadPost *.doc %!antiword "%"
" a folding method
vim: filetype=help foldmethod=marker foldmarker=<<<,>>>
A really big section closed with a tag <<< 
--- remember folds can be nested --- 
Closing tag >>> 
" Return to last edit position (You want this!) *N*
autocmd BufReadPost *
     \ if line("'\"") > 0 && line("'\"") <= line("$") |
     \   exe "normal! g`\"" |
     \ endif
" store text that is to be changed or deleted in register a
"act<                                 :  Change Till < *N*
# using gVIM with Cygwin on a Windows PC
if has('win32')
source $VIMRUNTIME/mswin.vim
behave mswin
set shell=c:\\cygwin\\bin\\bash.exe shellcmdflag=-c shellxquote=\"
" Just Another Vim Hacker JAVH
vim -c ":%s%s*%Cyrnfr)fcbafbe[Oenz(Zbbyranne%|:%s)[[()])-)Ig|norm Vg?"
"Read Vimtips into a new vim buffer (needs w3m.sourceforge.net)
:tabe | :r ! w3m -dump http://zzapper.co.uk/vimtips.html    *N*
updated version at http://www.zzapper.co.uk/vimtips.html
Please email any errors, tips etc to
" Information Sources
Vim Wiki *** VERY GOOD *** *N*
Vim Use VIM newsgroup *N*
groups.yahoo.com/group/vim "VIM" specific newsgroup
VIM Webring
Vim Book
Searchable VIM Doc
VimTips PDF Version (PRINTABLE!)
" : commands to neutralise < for HTML display and publish
" use yy@" to execute following commands
:w!|sav! vimtips.html|:/^__BEGIN__/,/^__END__/s#<#\<#g|:w!|:!vimtipsftp

Find and replace globally in a file

posted Sep 11, 2010, 6:25 AM by Sachchida Ojha   [ updated Sep 11, 2010, 6:27 AM ]

:.,$ s/<oldval>/<newval>/g

How to remove DOS linebreaks (^M) from files?

posted Sep 11, 2010, 6:24 AM by Sachchida Ojha

Method 1:

    In the vi editor, do the following:

    :.,$s/(ctrl-v)(ctrl-m)//g (enter)

    After typing the (ctrl-v)(ctrl-m) combination, you should see a "^M" in the line (note, the ^M is NOT just a '^' and an 'M', it's a special control character. If you try to reproduce it without the control sequence I describe here, you'll really mess up your file.

    By the way, if you do screw something up, just type:


    which will exit the editor without saving, and you can start fresh and try again.

Method 2: Using sed

    From your Linux shell prompt, do the following:

    sed -e 's/(cntrl-v)(cntrl-m)//g' [filename] > [new filename]

    This creates a new file with the ^M's removed

Method 3:

    If your system has the 'dos2unix' utility, you can do this:

    dos2unix [filename]

    This has the advantage of replacing the original file, so you don't need to move anything after running this command.

VI Editor Commands

posted Sep 11, 2010, 6:21 AM by Sachchida Ojha   [ updated Mar 6, 2012, 10:48 AM by Sachchida Ojha ]

Vi is the most often used editor by Oracle DBA's. We will add some of the most basic command used by DBA's for day to day operation.
see also : Ref1

Displaying vi option values

To display the current value of all options enter the command:
   :set all 
To display the value of those options whose values have been reset from their default enter the
   :set Starting an Editing Sessionvi filename  where filename is the name of the file to be edited. Undo Command
u undo the last command. Screen Commands
Reprints current screen.
Exposes one more line at top of screen.
Exposes one more line at bottom of screen.
Pages forward one screen.
Pages back one screen.
Pages down half screen.
Pages up half screen.
Cursor Positioning Commands
Moves cursor down one line, same column.
Moves cursor up one line, same column.
Moves cursor back one character.
Moves cursor forward one character.
Moves cursor to beginning of next line.
Moves cursor to beginning of current line.
Moves cursor to end of current line.
Moves cursor forward one character.
Moves cursor to beginning of line n. Default is last line of file.
Moves the cursor to the first character of the line.
Moves cursor to beginning of line n.
Moves the cursor backward to the beginning of the previous word.
Moves the cursor backward to the end of the previous word.
Moves the cursor forward to the next word.
Moves cursor forward to next occurrence of pattern.
Moves cursor backward to next occurrence of pattern.
Repeats last / or ? pattern search.
Text Insertion Commands
Appends text after cursor. Terminated by escape key.
Appends text at the end of the line. Terminated the escape key.
Inserts text before cursor. Terminated by the escape key.
Inserts text at the beginning of the line. Terminated by the escape key.
Opens new line below the current line for text insertion. Terminated by the
escape key.
Opens new line above the current line for text insertion. Terminated by the
escape key.
Overwrites last character during text insertion.
Stops text insertion. The escape key on the DECstations is the F11 key.
Text Deletion Commands
Deletes current character.
Deletes current line.
Deletes the current word.
Deletes the rest of the current sentence.
D, d$
Deletes from cursor to end of line.
Puts back text from the previous delete.
Changing Commands
Changes characters of current word until stopped with escape key.
Changes text up to the end of the line.
C, cc
Changes remaining text on current line until stopped by pressing the escape key.
Changes case of current character.
Transposes current and following characters.
Joins current line with next line.
Deletes the current character and goes into the insertion mode.
Replaces current character with x.
Replaces the following characters until terminated with the escape key.
Cut and Paste Commands
Puts the current line in a buffer. Does not delete the line from
its current position.
Places the line in the buffer after the current position of the cursor.
Appending Files into Current File
:R filename
Inserts the file filename where the cursor was before the ``:'' was typed.
Exiting vi
Exits vi and saves changes.
Writes changes to current file and quits edit session.
Quits edit session (no changes made).

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