Configuring PostgreSQL

posted Feb 19, 2012, 6:23 PM by Sachchida Ojha
postgresql.conf is the main configuration file for the PostgreSQL DBMS. It will be located in your data directory.
[root@usha local]# cd /var/lib/pgsql/9.1/data/

[root@usha data]# ls -ltr
total 92
-rw-------. 1 postgres postgres     4 Feb 19 13:00 PG_VERSION
drwx------. 2 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 13:00 pg_twophase
drwx------. 2 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 13:00 pg_tblspc
drwx------. 2 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 13:00 pg_serial
drwx------. 4 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 13:00 pg_multixact
-rw-------. 1 postgres postgres 19146 Feb 19 13:00 postgresql.conf
-rw-------. 1 postgres postgres  1636 Feb 19 13:00 pg_ident.conf
-rw-------. 1 postgres postgres  4232 Feb 19 13:00 pg_hba.conf
drwx------. 3 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 13:00 pg_xlog
drwx------. 2 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 13:00 pg_subtrans
drwx------. 2 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 13:00 pg_clog
drwx------. 5 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 13:00 base
-rw-------. 1 postgres postgres    81 Feb 19 13:30 postmaster.pid
drwx------. 2 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 13:30 pg_notify
-rw-------. 1 postgres postgres    71 Feb 19 13:30 postmaster.opts
drwx------. 2 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 13:30 pg_log
drwx------. 2 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 13:30 global
drwx------. 2 postgres postgres  4096 Feb 19 21:11 pg_stat_tmp
[root@usha data]#

# -----------------------------
# PostgreSQL configuration file
# -----------------------------
#
# This file consists of lines of the form:
#
#   name = value
#
# (The "=" is optional.)  Whitespace may be used.  Comments are introduced with
# "#" anywhere on a line.  The complete list of parameter names and allowed
# values can be found in the PostgreSQL documentation.
#
# The commented-out settings shown in this file represent the default values.
# Re-commenting a setting is NOT sufficient to revert it to the default value;
# you need to reload the server.
#
# This file is read on server startup and when the server receives a SIGHUP
# signal.  If you edit the file on a running system, you have to SIGHUP the
# server for the changes to take effect, or use "pg_ctl reload".  Some
# parameters, which are marked below, require a server shutdown and restart to
# take effect.
#
# Any parameter can also be given as a command-line option to the server, e.g.,
# "postgres -c log_connections=on".  Some parameters can be changed at run time
# with the "SET" SQL command.
#
# Memory units:  kB = kilobytes        Time units:  ms  = milliseconds
#                MB = megabytes                              s   = seconds
#                GB = gigabytes                                min = minutes
#                                                                      h   = hours
#                                                                       d   = days

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# FILE LOCATIONS
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# The default values of these variables are driven from the -D command-line
# option or PGDATA environment variable, represented here as ConfigDir.

#data_directory = 'ConfigDir'           # use data in another directory
                                        # (change requires restart)
#hba_file = 'ConfigDir/pg_hba.conf'     # host-based authentication file
                                        # (change requires restart)
#ident_file = 'ConfigDir/pg_ident.conf' # ident configuration file
                                        # (change requires restart)

# If external_pid_file is not explicitly set, no extra PID file is written.
#external_pid_file = '(none)'           # write an extra PID file
                                        # (change requires restart)


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# CONNECTIONS AND AUTHENTICATION
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Connection Settings -

#listen_addresses = 'localhost'        # what IP address(es) to listen on;
                    # comma-separated list of addresses;
                    # defaults to 'localhost', '*' = all
                    # (change requires restart)
#port = 5432                # (change requires restart)
max_connections = 100            # (change requires restart)
# Note:  Increasing max_connections costs ~400 bytes of shared memory per
# connection slot, plus lock space (see max_locks_per_transaction).
#superuser_reserved_connections = 3    # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_directory = ''        # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_group = ''            # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_permissions = 0777        # begin with 0 to use octal notation
                    # (change requires restart)
#bonjour = off                # advertise server via Bonjour
                    # (change requires restart)
#bonjour_name = ''            # defaults to the computer name
                    # (change requires restart)

# - Security and Authentication -

#authentication_timeout = 1min        # 1s-600s
#ssl = off                # (change requires restart)
#ssl_ciphers = 'ALL:!ADH:!LOW:!EXP:!MD5:@STRENGTH'    # allowed SSL ciphers
                    # (change requires restart)
#ssl_renegotiation_limit = 512MB    # amount of data between renegotiations
#password_encryption = on
#db_user_namespace = off

# Kerberos and GSSAPI
#krb_server_keyfile = ''
#krb_srvname = 'postgres'        # (Kerberos only)
#krb_caseins_users = off

# - TCP Keepalives -
# see "man 7 tcp" for details

#tcp_keepalives_idle = 0        # TCP_KEEPIDLE, in seconds;
                    # 0 selects the system default
#tcp_keepalives_interval = 0        # TCP_KEEPINTVL, in seconds;
                    # 0 selects the system default
#tcp_keepalives_count = 0        # TCP_KEEPCNT;
                    # 0 selects the system default


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# RESOURCE USAGE (except WAL)
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Memory -

shared_buffers = 32MB            # min 128kB
                    # (change requires restart)
#temp_buffers = 8MB            # min 800kB
#max_prepared_transactions = 0        # zero disables the feature
                    # (change requires restart)
# Note:  Increasing max_prepared_transactions costs ~600 bytes of shared memory
# per transaction slot, plus lock space (see max_locks_per_transaction).
# It is not advisable to set max_prepared_transactions nonzero unless you
# actively intend to use prepared transactions.
#work_mem = 1MB                # min 64kB
#maintenance_work_mem = 16MB        # min 1MB
#max_stack_depth = 2MB            # min 100kB

# - Kernel Resource Usage -

#max_files_per_process = 1000        # min 25
                    # (change requires restart)
#shared_preload_libraries = ''        # (change requires restart)

# - Cost-Based Vacuum Delay -

#vacuum_cost_delay = 0ms        # 0-100 milliseconds
#vacuum_cost_page_hit = 1        # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_page_miss = 10        # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_page_dirty = 20        # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_limit = 200        # 1-10000 credits

# - Background Writer -

#bgwriter_delay = 200ms            # 10-10000ms between rounds
#bgwriter_lru_maxpages = 100        # 0-1000 max buffers written/round
#bgwriter_lru_multiplier = 2.0        # 0-10.0 multipler on buffers scanned/round

# - Asynchronous Behavior -

#effective_io_concurrency = 1        # 1-1000. 0 disables prefetching


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# WRITE AHEAD LOG
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Settings -

#wal_level = minimal            # minimal, archive, or hot_standby
                    # (change requires restart)
#fsync = on                # turns forced synchronization on or off
#synchronous_commit = on        # synchronization level; on, off, or local
#wal_sync_method = fsync        # the default is the first option
                    # supported by the operating system:
                    #   open_datasync
                    #   fdatasync (default on Linux)
                    #   fsync
                    #   fsync_writethrough
                    #   open_sync
#full_page_writes = on            # recover from partial page writes
#wal_buffers = -1            # min 32kB, -1 sets based on shared_buffers
                    # (change requires restart)
#wal_writer_delay = 200ms        # 1-10000 milliseconds

#commit_delay = 0            # range 0-100000, in microseconds
#commit_siblings = 5            # range 1-1000

# - Checkpoints -

#checkpoint_segments = 3        # in logfile segments, min 1, 16MB each
#checkpoint_timeout = 5min        # range 30s-1h
#checkpoint_completion_target = 0.5    # checkpoint target duration, 0.0 - 1.0
#checkpoint_warning = 30s        # 0 disables

# - Archiving -

#archive_mode = off        # allows archiving to be done
                # (change requires restart)
#archive_command = ''        # command to use to archive a logfile segment
#archive_timeout = 0        # force a logfile segment switch after this
                # number of seconds; 0 disables


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# REPLICATION
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Master Server -

# These settings are ignored on a standby server

#max_wal_senders = 0        # max number of walsender processes
                # (change requires restart)
#wal_sender_delay = 1s        # walsender cycle time, 1-10000 milliseconds
#wal_keep_segments = 0        # in logfile segments, 16MB each; 0 disables
#vacuum_defer_cleanup_age = 0    # number of xacts by which cleanup is delayed
#replication_timeout = 60s    # in milliseconds; 0 disables
#synchronous_standby_names = ''    # standby servers that provide sync rep
                # comma-separated list of application_name
                # from standby(s); '*' = all

# - Standby Servers -

# These settings are ignored on a master server

#hot_standby = off            # "on" allows queries during recovery
                    # (change requires restart)
#max_standby_archive_delay = 30s    # max delay before canceling queries
                    # when reading WAL from archive;
                    # -1 allows indefinite delay
#max_standby_streaming_delay = 30s    # max delay before canceling queries
                    # when reading streaming WAL;
                    # -1 allows indefinite delay
#wal_receiver_status_interval = 10s    # send replies at least this often
                    # 0 disables
#hot_standby_feedback = off        # send info from standby to prevent
                    # query conflicts


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# QUERY TUNING
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Planner Method Configuration -

#enable_bitmapscan = on
#enable_hashagg = on
#enable_hashjoin = on
#enable_indexscan = on
#enable_material = on
#enable_mergejoin = on
#enable_nestloop = on
#enable_seqscan = on
#enable_sort = on
#enable_tidscan = on

# - Planner Cost Constants -

#seq_page_cost = 1.0            # measured on an arbitrary scale
#random_page_cost = 4.0            # same scale as above
#cpu_tuple_cost = 0.01            # same scale as above
#cpu_index_tuple_cost = 0.005        # same scale as above
#cpu_operator_cost = 0.0025        # same scale as above
#effective_cache_size = 128MB

# - Genetic Query Optimizer -

#geqo = on
#geqo_threshold = 12
#geqo_effort = 5            # range 1-10
#geqo_pool_size = 0            # selects default based on effort
#geqo_generations = 0            # selects default based on effort
#geqo_selection_bias = 2.0        # range 1.5-2.0
#geqo_seed = 0.0            # range 0.0-1.0

# - Other Planner Options -

#default_statistics_target = 100    # range 1-10000
#constraint_exclusion = partition    # on, off, or partition
#cursor_tuple_fraction = 0.1        # range 0.0-1.0
#from_collapse_limit = 8
#join_collapse_limit = 8        # 1 disables collapsing of explicit
                    # JOIN clauses


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# ERROR REPORTING AND LOGGING
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Where to Log -

log_destination = 'stderr'        # Valid values are combinations of
                    # stderr, csvlog, syslog, and eventlog,
                    # depending on platform.  csvlog
                    # requires logging_collector to be on.

# This is used when logging to stderr:
logging_collector = on            # Enable capturing of stderr and csvlog
                    # into log files. Required to be on for
                    # csvlogs.
                    # (change requires restart)

# These are only used if logging_collector is on:
log_directory = 'pg_log'        # directory where log files are written,
                    # can be absolute or relative to PGDATA
log_filename = 'postgresql-%a.log'    # log file name pattern,
                    # can include strftime() escapes
#log_file_mode = 0600            # creation mode for log files,
                    # begin with 0 to use octal notation
log_truncate_on_rotation = on        # If on, an existing log file with the
                    # same name as the new log file will be
                    # truncated rather than appended to.
                    # But such truncation only occurs on
                    # time-driven rotation, not on restarts
                    # or size-driven rotation.  Default is
                    # off, meaning append to existing files
                    # in all cases.
log_rotation_age = 1d            # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
                    # happen after that time.  0 disables.
log_rotation_size = 0            # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
                    # happen after that much log output.
                    # 0 disables.

# These are relevant when logging to syslog:
#syslog_facility = 'LOCAL0'
#syslog_ident = 'postgres'

#silent_mode = off            # Run server silently.
                    # DO NOT USE without syslog or
                    # logging_collector
                    # (change requires restart)


# - When to Log -

#client_min_messages = notice        # values in order of decreasing detail:
                    #   debug5
                    #   debug4
                    #   debug3
                    #   debug2
                    #   debug1
                    #   log
                    #   notice
                    #   warning
                    #   error

#log_min_messages = warning        # values in order of decreasing detail:
                    #   debug5
                    #   debug4
                    #   debug3
                    #   debug2
                    #   debug1
                    #   info
                    #   notice
                    #   warning
                    #   error
                    #   log
                    #   fatal
                    #   panic

#log_min_error_statement = error    # values in order of decreasing detail:
                     #   debug5
                    #   debug4
                    #   debug3
                    #   debug2
                    #   debug1
                     #   info
                    #   notice
                    #   warning
                    #   error
                    #   log
                    #   fatal
                    #   panic (effectively off)

#log_min_duration_statement = -1    # -1 is disabled, 0 logs all statements
                    # and their durations, > 0 logs only
                    # statements running at least this number
                    # of milliseconds


# - What to Log -

#debug_print_parse = off
#debug_print_rewritten = off
#debug_print_plan = off
#debug_pretty_print = on
#log_checkpoints = off
#log_connections = off
#log_disconnections = off
#log_duration = off
#log_error_verbosity = default        # terse, default, or verbose messages
#log_hostname = off
#log_line_prefix = ''            # special values:
                    #   %a = application name
                    #   %u = user name
                    #   %d = database name
                    #   %r = remote host and port
                    #   %h = remote host
                    #   %p = process ID
                    #   %t = timestamp without milliseconds
                    #   %m = timestamp with milliseconds
                    #   %i = command tag
                    #   %e = SQL state
                    #   %c = session ID
                    #   %l = session line number
                    #   %s = session start timestamp
                    #   %v = virtual transaction ID
                    #   %x = transaction ID (0 if none)
                    #   %q = stop here in non-session
                    #        processes
                    #   %% = '%'
                    # e.g. '<%u%%%d> '
#log_lock_waits = off            # log lock waits >= deadlock_timeout
#log_statement = 'none'            # none, ddl, mod, all
#log_temp_files = -1            # log temporary files equal or larger
                    # than the specified size in kilobytes;
                    # -1 disables, 0 logs all temp files
#log_timezone = '(defaults to server environment setting)'


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# RUNTIME STATISTICS
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Query/Index Statistics Collector -

#track_activities = on
#track_counts = on
#track_functions = none            # none, pl, all
#track_activity_query_size = 1024     # (change requires restart)
#update_process_title = on
#stats_temp_directory = 'pg_stat_tmp'


# - Statistics Monitoring -

#log_parser_stats = off
#log_planner_stats = off
#log_executor_stats = off
#log_statement_stats = off


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# AUTOVACUUM PARAMETERS
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#autovacuum = on            # Enable autovacuum subprocess?  'on'
                    # requires track_counts to also be on.
#log_autovacuum_min_duration = -1    # -1 disables, 0 logs all actions and
                    # their durations, > 0 logs only
                    # actions running at least this number
                    # of milliseconds.
#autovacuum_max_workers = 3        # max number of autovacuum subprocesses
                    # (change requires restart)
#autovacuum_naptime = 1min        # time between autovacuum runs
#autovacuum_vacuum_threshold = 50    # min number of row updates before
                    # vacuum
#autovacuum_analyze_threshold = 50    # min number of row updates before
                    # analyze
#autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = 0.2    # fraction of table size before vacuum
#autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor = 0.1    # fraction of table size before analyze
#autovacuum_freeze_max_age = 200000000    # maximum XID age before forced vacuum
                    # (change requires restart)
#autovacuum_vacuum_cost_delay = 20ms    # default vacuum cost delay for
                    # autovacuum, in milliseconds;
                    # -1 means use vacuum_cost_delay
#autovacuum_vacuum_cost_limit = -1    # default vacuum cost limit for
                    # autovacuum, -1 means use
                    # vacuum_cost_limit


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# CLIENT CONNECTION DEFAULTS
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Statement Behavior -

#search_path = '"$user",public'        # schema names
#default_tablespace = ''        # a tablespace name, '' uses the default
#temp_tablespaces = ''            # a list of tablespace names, '' uses
                    # only default tablespace
#check_function_bodies = on
#default_transaction_isolation = 'read committed'
#default_transaction_read_only = off
#default_transaction_deferrable = off
#session_replication_role = 'origin'
#statement_timeout = 0            # in milliseconds, 0 is disabled
#vacuum_freeze_min_age = 50000000
#vacuum_freeze_table_age = 150000000
#bytea_output = 'hex'            # hex, escape
#xmlbinary = 'base64'
#xmloption = 'content'

# - Locale and Formatting -

datestyle = 'iso, mdy'
#intervalstyle = 'postgres'
#timezone = '(defaults to server environment setting)'
#timezone_abbreviations = 'Default'     # Select the set of available time zone
                    # abbreviations.  Currently, there are
                    #   Default
                    #   Australia
                    #   India
                    # You can create your own file in
                    # share/timezonesets/.
#extra_float_digits = 0            # min -15, max 3
#client_encoding = sql_ascii        # actually, defaults to database
                    # encoding

# These settings are initialized by initdb, but they can be changed.
lc_messages = 'en_US.UTF-8'            # locale for system error message
                    # strings
lc_monetary = 'en_US.UTF-8'            # locale for monetary formatting
lc_numeric = 'en_US.UTF-8'            # locale for number formatting
lc_time = 'en_US.UTF-8'                # locale for time formatting

# default configuration for text search
default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.english'

# - Other Defaults -

#dynamic_library_path = '$libdir'
#local_preload_libraries = ''


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# LOCK MANAGEMENT
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#deadlock_timeout = 1s
#max_locks_per_transaction = 64        # min 10
                    # (change requires restart)
# Note:  Each lock table slot uses ~270 bytes of shared memory, and there are
# max_locks_per_transaction * (max_connections + max_prepared_transactions)
# lock table slots.
#max_pred_locks_per_transaction = 64    # min 10
                    # (change requires restart)

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# VERSION/PLATFORM COMPATIBILITY
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# - Previous PostgreSQL Versions -

#array_nulls = on
#backslash_quote = safe_encoding    # on, off, or safe_encoding
#default_with_oids = off
#escape_string_warning = on
#lo_compat_privileges = off
#quote_all_identifiers = off
#sql_inheritance = on
#standard_conforming_strings = on
#synchronize_seqscans = on

# - Other Platforms and Clients -

#transform_null_equals = off


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# ERROR HANDLING
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#exit_on_error = off                # terminate session on any error?
#restart_after_crash = on            # reinitialize after backend crash?


#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# CUSTOMIZED OPTIONS
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#custom_variable_classes = ''        # list of custom variable class names
[root@usha data]#



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