Top 20 DBA Unix Commands

Refresh the .profile for one user
$. ./.profile (Dot space dot slash dot profile) OR the best way is logout and login again. It will load with latest changes done by you.
find /u??/MJBDB -name \*.dbf -ls | grep -v "Oct 19"
List the files on size of Megabytes only
ls -l | awk '{printf "%s %i %s %s %.3fMB %s %i %s %s\n", $1,$2,$3,$4,$5/1024000,$6,$7,$8,$9}'


umask command is used to read or set default file permissions for the current user.

root> umask 022
The umask value is subtracted from the default
permissions (666) to give the final permission:

666 : Default permission
022 : - umask value
644 : final permission



# double space a file
sed G

# double space a file which already has blank lines in it. Output file
# should contain no more than one blank line between lines of text.
sed '/^$/d;G'

# triple space a file
sed 'G;G'

# undo double-spacing (assumes even-numbered lines are always blank)
sed 'n;d'

# insert a blank line above every line which matches "regex"
sed '/regex/{x;p;x;}'

# insert a blank line below every line which matches "regex"
sed '/regex/G'

# insert a blank line above and below every line which matches "regex"
sed '/regex/{x;p;x;G;}'


# number each line of a file (simple left alignment). Using a tab (see
# note on '\t' at end of file) instead of space will preserve margins.
sed = filename | sed 'N;s/\n/\t/'

# number each line of a file (number on left, right-aligned)
sed = filename | sed 'N; s/^/     /; s/ *\(.\{6,\}\)\n/\1  /'

# number each line of file, but only print numbers if line is not blank
sed '/./=' filename | sed '/./N; s/\n/ /'

# count lines (emulates "wc -l")
sed -n '$='


# IN UNIX ENVIRONMENT: convert DOS newlines (CR/LF) to Unix format
sed 's/.$//'               # assumes that all lines end with CR/LF
sed 's/^M$//'              # in bash/tcsh, press Ctrl-V then Ctrl-M
sed 's/\x0D$//'            # gsed 3.02.80, but top script is easier

# IN UNIX ENVIRONMENT: convert Unix newlines (LF) to DOS format
sed "s/$/`echo -e \\\r`/"            # command line under ksh
sed 's/$'"/`echo \\\r`/"             # command line under bash
sed "s/$/`echo \\\r`/"               # command line under zsh
sed 's/$/\r/'                        # gsed 3.02.80

# IN DOS ENVIRONMENT: convert Unix newlines (LF) to DOS format
sed "s/$//"                          # method 1
sed -n p                             # method 2

# IN DOS ENVIRONMENT: convert DOS newlines (CR/LF) to Unix format
# Can only be done with UnxUtils sed, version 4.0.7 or higher.
# Cannot be done with other DOS versions of sed. Use "tr" instead.
sed "s/\r//" infile >outfile         # UnxUtils sed v4.0.7 or higher
tr -d \r <infile >outfile            # GNU tr version 1.22 or higher

# delete leading whitespace (spaces, tabs) from front of each line
# aligns all text flush left
sed 's/^[ \t]*//'                    # see note on '\t' at end of file

# delete trailing whitespace (spaces, tabs) from end of each line
sed 's/[ \t]*$//'                    # see note on '\t' at end of file

# delete BOTH leading and trailing whitespace from each line
sed 's/^[ \t]*//;s/[ \t]*$//'

# insert 5 blank spaces at beginning of each line (make page offset)
sed 's/^/     /'

# align all text flush right on a 79-column width
sed -e :a -e 's/^.\{1,78\}$/ &/;ta'  # set at 78 plus 1 space

# center all text in the middle of 79-column width. In method 1,
# spaces at the beginning of the line are significant, and trailing
# spaces are appended at the end of the line. In method 2, spaces at
# the beginning of the line are discarded in centering the line, and
# no trailing spaces appear at the end of lines.
sed  -e :a -e 's/^.\{1,77\}$/ & /;ta'                     # method 1
sed  -e :a -e 's/^.\{1,77\}$/ &/;ta' -e 's/\( *\)\1/\1/'  # method 2

# substitute (find and replace) "foo" with "bar" on each line
sed 's/foo/bar/'             # replaces only 1st instance in a line
sed 's/foo/bar/4'            # replaces only 4th instance in a line
sed 's/foo/bar/g'            # replaces ALL instances in a line
sed 's/\(.*\)foo\(.*foo\)/\1bar\2/' # replace the next-to-last case
sed 's/\(.*\)foo/\1bar/'            # replace only the last case

# substitute "foo" with "bar" ONLY for lines which contain "baz"
sed '/baz/s/foo/bar/g'

# substitute "foo" with "bar" EXCEPT for lines which contain "baz"
sed '/baz/!s/foo/bar/g'

# change "scarlet" or "ruby" or "puce" to "red"
sed 's/scarlet/red/g;s/ruby/red/g;s/puce/red/g'   # most seds
gsed 's/scarlet\|ruby\|puce/red/g'                # GNU sed only

# reverse order of lines (emulates "tac")
# bug/feature in HHsed v1.5 causes blank lines to be deleted
sed '1!G;h;$!d'               # method 1
sed -n '1!G;h;$p'             # method 2

# reverse each character on the line (emulates "rev")
sed '/\n/!G;s/\(.\)\(.*\n\)/&\2\1/;//D;s/.//'

# join pairs of lines side-by-side (like "paste")
sed '$!N;s/\n/ /'

# if a line ends with a backslash, append the next line to it
sed -e :a -e '/\\$/N; s/\\\n//; ta'

# if a line begins with an equal sign, append it to the previous line
# and replace the "=" with a single space
sed -e :a -e '$!N;s/\n=/ /;ta' -e 'P;D'

# add commas to numeric strings, changing "1234567" to "1,234,567"
gsed ':a;s/\B[0-9]\{3\}\>/,&/;ta'                     # GNU sed
sed -e :a -e 's/\(.*[0-9]\)\([0-9]\{3\}\)/\1,\2/;ta'  # other seds

# add commas to numbers with decimal points and minus signs (GNU sed)
gsed ':a;s/\(^\|[^0-9.]\)\([0-9]\ \)\([0-9]\{3\}\)/\1\2,\3/g;ta'

# add a blank line every 5 lines (after lines 5, 10, 15, 20, etc.)
gsed '0~5G'                  # GNU sed only
sed 'n;n;n;n;G;'             # other seds


# print first 10 lines of file (emulates behavior of "head")
sed 10q

# print first line of file (emulates "head -1")
sed q

# print the last 10 lines of a file (emulates "tail")
sed -e :a -e '$q;N;11,$D;ba'

# print the last 2 lines of a file (emulates "tail -2")
sed '$!N;$!D'

# print the last line of a file (emulates "tail -1")
sed '$!d'                    # method 1
sed -n '$p'                  # method 2

# print only lines which match regular expression (emulates "grep")
sed -n '/regexp/p'           # method 1
sed '/regexp/!d'             # method 2

# print only lines which do NOT match regexp (emulates "grep -v")
sed -n '/regexp/!p'          # method 1, corresponds to above
sed '/regexp/d'              # method 2, simpler syntax

# print the line immediately before a regexp, but not the line
# containing the regexp
sed -n '/regexp/{g;1!p;};h'

# print the line immediately after a regexp, but not the line
# containing the regexp
sed -n '/regexp/{n;p;}'

# print 1 line of context before and after regexp, with line number
# indicating where the regexp occurred (similar to "grep -A1 -B1")
sed -n -e '/regexp/{=;x;1!p;g;$!N;p;D;}' -e h

# grep for AAA and BBB and CCC (in any order)
sed '/AAA/!d; /BBB/!d; /CCC/!d'

# grep for AAA and BBB and CCC (in that order)
sed '/AAA.*BBB.*CCC/!d'

# grep for AAA or BBB or CCC (emulates "egrep")
sed -e '/AAA/b' -e '/BBB/b' -e '/CCC/b' -e d    # most seds
gsed '/AAA\|BBB\|CCC/!d'                        # GNU sed only

# print paragraph if it contains AAA (blank lines separate paragraphs)
# HHsed v1.5 must insert a 'G;' after 'x;' in the next 3 scripts below
sed -e '/./{H;$!d;}' -e 'x;/AAA/!d;'

# print paragraph if it contains AAA and BBB and CCC (in any order)
sed -e '/./{H;$!d;}' -e 'x;/AAA/!d;/BBB/!d;/CCC/!d'

# print paragraph if it contains AAA or BBB or CCC
sed -e '/./{H;$!d;}' -e 'x;/AAA/b' -e '/BBB/b' -e '/CCC/b' -e d
gsed '/./{H;$!d;};x;/AAA\|BBB\|CCC/b;d'         # GNU sed only

# print only lines of 65 characters or longer
sed -n '/^.\{65\}/p'

# print only lines of less than 65 characters
sed -n '/^.\{65\}/!p'        # method 1, corresponds to above
sed '/^.\{65\}/d'            # method 2, simpler syntax

# print section of file from regular expression to end of file
sed -n '/regexp/,$p'

# print section of file based on line numbers (lines 8-12, inclusive)
sed -n '8,12p'               # method 1
sed '8,12!d'                 # method 2

# print line number 52
sed -n '52p'                 # method 1
sed '52!d'                   # method 2
sed '52q;d'                  # method 3, efficient on large files

# beginning at line 3, print every 7th line
gsed -n '3~7p'               # GNU sed only
sed -n '3,${p;n;n;n;n;n;n;}' # other seds

# print section of file between two regular expressions (inclusive)
sed -n '/Iowa/,/Montana/p'             # case sensitive


# print all of file EXCEPT section between 2 regular expressions
sed '/Iowa/,/Montana/d'

# delete duplicate, consecutive lines from a file (emulates "uniq").
# First line in a set of duplicate lines is kept, rest are deleted.
sed '$!N; /^\(.*\)\n\1$/!P; D'

# delete duplicate, nonconsecutive lines from a file. Beware not to
# overflow the buffer size of the hold space, or else use GNU sed.
sed -n 'G; s/\n/&&/; /^\([ -~]*\n\).*\n\1/d; s/\n//; h; P'

# delete all lines except duplicate lines (emulates "uniq -d").
sed '$!N; s/^\(.*\)\n\1$/\1/; t; D'

# delete the first 10 lines of a file
sed '1,10d'

# delete the last line of a file
sed '$d'

# delete the last 2 lines of a file
sed 'N;$!P;$!D;$d'

# delete the last 10 lines of a file
sed -e :a -e '$d;N;2,10ba' -e 'P;D'   # method 1
sed -n -e :a -e '1,10!{P;N;D;};N;ba'  # method 2

# delete every 8th line
gsed '0~8d'                           # GNU sed only
sed 'n;n;n;n;n;n;n;d;'                # other seds

# delete ALL blank lines from a file (same as "grep '.' ")
sed '/^$/d'                           # method 1
sed '/./!d'                           # method 2

# delete all CONSECUTIVE blank lines from file except the first; also
# deletes all blank lines from top and end of file (emulates "cat -s")
sed '/./,/^$/!d'          # method 1, allows 0 blanks at top, 1 at EOF
sed '/^$/N;/\n$/D'        # method 2, allows 1 blank at top, 0 at EOF

# delete all CONSECUTIVE blank lines from file except the first 2:
sed '/^$/N;/\n$/N;//D'

# delete all leading blank lines at top of file
sed '/./,$!d'

# delete all trailing blank lines at end of file
sed -e :a -e '/^\n*$/{$d;N;ba' -e '}'  # works on all seds
sed -e :a -e '/^\n*$/N;/\n$/ba'        # ditto, except for gsed 3.02*

# delete the last line of each paragraph
sed -n '/^$/{p;h;};/./{x;/./p;}'


# remove nroff overstrikes (char, backspace) from man pages. The 'echo'
# command may need an -e switch if you use Unix System V or bash shell.
sed "s/.`echo \\\b`//g"    # double quotes required for Unix environment
sed 's/.^H//g'             # in bash/tcsh, press Ctrl-V and then Ctrl-H
sed 's/.\x08//g'           # hex expression for sed v1.5

# get Usenet/e-mail message header
sed '/^$/q'                # deletes everything after first blank line

# get Usenet/e-mail message body
sed '1,/^$/d'              # deletes everything up to first blank line

# get Subject header, but remove initial "Subject: " portion
sed '/^Subject: */!d; s///;q'

# get return address header
sed '/^Reply-To:/q; /^From:/h; /./d;g;q'

# parse out the address proper. Pulls out the e-mail address by itself
# from the 1-line return address header (see preceding script)
sed 's/ *(.*)//; s/>.*//; s/.*[:<] *//'

# add a leading angle bracket and space to each line (quote a message)
sed 's/^/> /'

# delete leading angle bracket & space from each line (unquote a message)
sed 's/^> //'

# remove most HTML tags (accommodates multiple-line tags)
sed -e :a -e 's/<[^>]*>//g;/</N;//ba'

# extract multi-part uuencoded binaries, removing extraneous header
# info, so that only the uuencoded portion remains. Files passed to
# sed must be passed in the proper order. Version 1 can be entered
# from the command line; version 2 can be made into an executable
# Unix shell script. (Modified from a script by Rahul Dhesi.)
sed '/^end/,/^begin/d' file1 file2 ... fileX | uudecode   # vers. 1
sed '/^end/,/^begin/d' "$@" | uudecode                    # vers. 2

# zip up each .TXT file individually, deleting the source file and
# setting the name of each .ZIP file to the basename of the .TXT file
# (under DOS: the "dir /b" switch returns bare filenames in all caps).
echo @echo off >zipup.bat
dir /b *.txt | sed "s/^\(.*\)\.TXT/pkzip -mo \1 \1.TXT/" >>zipup.bat

TYPICAL USE: Sed takes one or more editing commands and applies all of
them, in sequence, to each line of input. After all the commands have
been applied to the first input line, that line is output and a second
input line is taken for processing, and the cycle repeats. The
preceding examples assume that input comes from the standard input
device (i.e, the console, normally this will be piped input). One or
more filenames can be appended to the command line if the input does
not come from stdin. Output is sent to stdout (the screen). Thus:

cat filename | sed '10q'        # uses piped input
sed '10q' filename              # same effect, avoids a useless "cat"
sed '10q' filename > newfile    # redirects output to disk

For additional syntax instructions, including the way to apply editing
commands from a disk file instead of the command line, consult "sed &
awk, 2nd Edition," by Dale Dougherty and Arnold Robbins (O'Reilly,
1997;, "UNIX Text Processing," by Dale Dougherty
and Tim O'Reilly (Hayden Books, 1987) or the tutorials by Mike Arst
distributed in U-SEDIT2.ZIP (many sites). To fully exploit the power
of sed, one must understand "regular expressions." For this, see
"Mastering Regular Expressions" by Jeffrey Friedl (O'Reilly, 1997).
The manual ("man") pages on Unix systems may be helpful (try "man
sed", "man regexp", or the subsection on regular expressions in "man
ed"), but man pages are notoriously difficult. They are not written to
teach sed use or regexps to first-time users, but as a reference text
for those already acquainted with these tools.

QUOTING SYNTAX: The preceding examples use single quotes ('...')
instead of double quotes ("...") to enclose editing commands, since
sed is typically used on a Unix platform. Single quotes prevent the
Unix shell from intrepreting the dollar sign ($) and backquotes
(`...`), which are expanded by the shell if they are enclosed in
double quotes. Users of the "csh" shell and derivatives will also need
to quote the exclamation mark (!) with the backslash (i.e., \!) to
properly run the examples listed above, even within single quotes.
Versions of sed written for DOS invariably require double quotes
("...") instead of single quotes to enclose editing commands.

USE OF '\t' IN SED SCRIPTS: For clarity in documentation, we have used
the expression '\t' to indicate a tab character (0x09) in the scripts.
However, most versions of sed do not recognize the '\t' abbreviation,
so when typing these scripts from the command line, you should press
the TAB key instead. '\t' is supported as a regular expression
metacharacter in awk, perl, and HHsed, sedmod, and GNU sed v3.02.80.

VERSIONS OF SED: Versions of sed do differ, and some slight syntax
variation is to be expected. In particular, most do not support the
use of labels (:name) or branch instructions (b,t) within editing
commands, except at the end of those commands. We have used the syntax
which will be portable to most users of sed, even though the popular
GNU versions of sed allow a more succinct syntax. When the reader sees
a fairly long command such as this:

   sed -e '/AAA/b' -e '/BBB/b' -e '/CCC/b' -e d

it is heartening to know that GNU sed will let you reduce it to:

   sed '/AAA/b;/BBB/b;/CCC/b;d'      # or even
   sed '/AAA\|BBB\|CCC/b;d'

In addition, remember that while many versions of sed accept a command
like "/one/ s/RE1/RE2/", some do NOT allow "/one/! s/RE1/RE2/", which
contains space before the 's'. Omit the space when typing the command.

OPTIMIZING FOR SPEED: If execution speed needs to be increased (due to
large input files or slow processors or hard disks), substitution will
be executed more quickly if the "find" expression is specified before
giving the "s/.../.../" instruction. Thus:

   sed 's/foo/bar/g' filename         # standard replace command
   sed '/foo/ s/foo/bar/g' filename   # executes more quickly
   sed '/foo/ s//bar/g' filename      # shorthand sed syntax

On line selection or deletion in which you only need to output lines
from the first part of the file, a "quit" command (q) in the script
will drastically reduce processing time for large files. Thus:

   sed -n '45,50p' filename           # print line nos. 45-50 of a file
   sed -n '51q;45,50p' filename       # same, but executes much faster

Set backspace as erase key
$stty erase <ctrlV backspace key>  

Demove DOS linebreaks (^M) from my files

Method 1:In the vi editor, do the following:

:.,$s/(ctrl-v)(ctrl-m)//g (enter)

After typing the (ctrl-v)(ctrl-m) combination, you should see a "^M" in the line (note, the ^M is NOT just a '^' and an 'M', it's a special control character. If you try to reproduce it without the control sequence I describe here, you'll really mess up your file.

By the way, if you do screw something up, just type:


which will exit the editor without saving, and you can start fresh and try again.

Method 2: Using sedFrom your Linux shell prompt, do the following:

sed -e 's/(cntrl-v)(cntrl-m)//g' [filename] > [new filename] This creates a new file with the ^M's removed

Remove DOS CR/LFs (^M)
sed -e 's/^M$//' filename > tempfile

Method 3: If your system has the 'dos2unix' utility, you can do this:

dos2unix [filename]This has the advantage of replacing the original file, so you don't need to move anything after running this command.
The awk command combines the functions of grep and sed, making it one of the most powerful unix commands. Using awk, you can substitute words from an input file's lines for words in a template or perform calculations on numbers within a file. (In case you're wondering how awk got such an offbeat name, it's derived from the surnames of the three programmers who invented it.)

To use awk, you write a miniature program in a C-like language that transforms each line of the input file. We'll concentrate only on the print function of awk, since that's the most useful and the least confusing of all the things awk can do. The general form of the awk command is

awk <pattern> '{print <stuff>}' <file>

In this case, stuff is going to be some combination of text, special variables that represent each word in the input line, and perhaps a mathematical operator or two. As awk processes each line of the input file, each word on the line is assigned to variables named $1 (the first word), $2 (the second word), and so on. (The variable $0 contains the entire line.)

Let's start with a file,, that contains these lines:

nail hammer wood
pedal foot car
clown pie circus

Now we'll use the print function in awk to plug the words from each input line into a template, like this:

awk '{print "Hit the",$1,"with your",$2}'
Hit the nail with your hammer
Hit the pedal with your foot
Hit the clown with your pie

Say some of the data in your input file is numeric, as in the file shown here:

Rogers 87 100 95
Lambchop 66 89 76
Barney 12 36 27

You can perform calculations like this:

awk '{print "Avg for",$1,"is",($2 $3 $4)/3}'
Avg for Rogers is 94
Avg for Lambchop is 77
Avg for Barney is 25

So far, we haven't specified any value for pattern in these examples, but if you want to exclude lines from being processed, you can enter something like this:

awk /^clown/'{print "See the",$1,"at the",$3}'
See the clown at the circus

Here, we told awk to consider only the input lines that start with clown. Note also that there is no space between the pattern and the print specifier. If you put a space there, awk will think the input file is '{print and will not work. But all this is just the tip of the awk iceberg--entire books have been written on this command. If you are a programmer, try the man awk command.
find /backup/logs/ -name daily_backup* -mtime +21 -exec rm -f {} ;


To pack and compress (one step at a time):

tar -cf packed_files.tar file_to_pack1 file_to_pack2 ...

 gzip packed_files.tar

To pack and compress all at once:

tar -cf - file_to_pack1 file_to_pack2 ... | gzip -c > packed_files.tar.gz

To create a tar from a directory and its subdirectories:

tar -cvf packed_files.tar dir_to_pack

To unpack tar files, use the following commands:

For an uncompressed tar file:

tar -xvf file_to_unpack.tar

To decompress and unpack one step at a time:

gunzip packed_files.tar.gz

tar -xf packed_files.tar

To decompress and unpack all at once:

gunzip -c packed_files.tar.gz | tar -xf -

To list the contents of a tar file, use the following command:

tar -tvf file_to_list.tar

To use bzip2 instead of gzip, simply replace the commands above with bzip2 where gzip is used and bunzip2 where gunzip is used.

Compression options

BSD and GNU tar have a compression flag feature making it easier to archive and compress gzipped, bzipped or compressed tarballs in one go. The following commands can be used to take advantage of this:

To pack and compress:

using gzip:
tar -czf packed_files.tgz file_to_pack1 file_to_pack2 ...

using bzip2:

tar -cjf packed_files.tbz2 file_to_pack1 file_to_pack2 ..

using compress:

tar -cZf packed_files.tar.Z file_to_pack1 file_to_pack2 ...

using some other arbitrary compression utility that works as a filter:

tar --use-compress-program=name_of_program -cf packed_files.tar.XXX file_to_pack1 file_to_pack2 ...

To uncompress and unpack:

a gzip compressed tar file:

tar -xzf file_to_unpack.tar.gz

a bzip2 compressed tar file:

tar -xjf file_to_unpack.tar.bz2

a compress compressed tar file:

tar -xZf file_to_unpack.tar.Z

an arbitrary-compression-utility-compressed tar file:

tar --use-compress-program=name_of_program -xf file_to_unpack.tar.XXX

Some versions of tar use the -y switch to invoke bzip2 rather than -j.

list the files on size of Megabytes only?