$ character represents the process ID number, or PID, of the current shell:
Above command would write PID of the current shell:
The following table shows a number of special variables that you can use in your shell scripts:
The command-line arguments $1, $2, $3,...$9 are positional parameters, with $0 pointing to the actual command, program, shell script, or function and $1, $2, $3, ...$9 as the arguments to the command.
Following script uses various special variables related to command line:
#!/bin/sh echo "File Name: $0" echo "First Parameter : $1" echo "First Parameter : $2" echo "Quoted Values: $@" echo "Quoted Values: $*" echo "Total Number of Parameters : $#"
Here is a sample run for the above script:
$./test.sh Zara Ali File Name : ./test.sh First Parameter : Zara First Parameter : Ali Quoted Values: Zara Ali Quoted Values: Zara Ali Total Number of Parameters : 2
There are special parameters that allow accessing all of the command-line arguments at once. $* and $@ both will act the same unless they are enclosed in double quotes, "".
Both the parameter specifies all command-line arguments but the "$*" special parameter takes the entire list as one argument with spaces between and the "$@" special parameter takes the entire list and separates it into separate arguments.
We can write the shell script shown below to process an unknown number of command-line arguments with either the $* or $@ special parameters:
#!/bin/sh for TOKEN in $* do echo $TOKEN done
There is one sample run for the above script:
$./test.sh Zara Ali 10 Years Old Zara Ali 10 Years Old
Note: Here do...done is a kind of loop which we would cover in subsequent tutorial.
The $? variable represents the exit status of the previous command.
Exit status is a numerical value returned by every command upon its completion. As a rule, most commands return an exit status of 0 if they were successful, and 1 if they were unsuccessful.
Some commands return additional exit statuses for particular reasons. For example, some commands differentiate between kinds of errors and will return various exit values depending on the specific type of failure.
Following is the example of successful command:
$./test.sh Zara Ali File Name : ./test.sh First Parameter : Zara First Parameter : Ali Quoted Values: Zara Ali Quoted Values: Zara Ali Total Number of Parameters : 2 $echo $? 0 $
UNIX BASIC CONCEPTS >